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Author: Konstantin

One of the new subjects of which a Design Technologist is taking care of is accessibility. The accessibility of websites consists of several entities: content, user agents (web browsers, media players), assistive technologies, user's knowledge, software development, authoring tools (tools for creating websites), and evaluation tools. Accessibility covers the same subjects that Design Technologists use in their everyday work - design, coding, and user experience.

Accessibility has become especially important for many companies and public entities when it was introduced in the legislation of many countries. Thus, it is not anymore just a question of User Experience, but also law compliance. Web accessibility requirements are quite technical and thus mainly people with developer background can understand what do these requirements actually mean and how they can be implemented. These laws are based on Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, which is more often referred as WCAG. The Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) are web accessibility guidelines created by the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) - international standards organization for the Internet. WCAG is a set of recommendations for making the Web more accessible, for people that have temporary or permanent difficulties with access to websites.

This set of recommendations is created to serve a wide audience of people and thus following it means also improving the website's overall user experience. WCAG provides three conformance levels known as Level A, AA, and AAA. According to the Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI), a website must satisfy Level A or otherwise, some users will find it impossible to access it. If a website cannot satisfy the Level AA then some users will find it difficult to access the website. Finally, a website may satisfy Level AAA, unless, some users will find it somewhat difficult to access the website.[1][2][3]

The list of countries that follow WCAG in their laws includes the USA (update Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act), UK (Equality Act), European Union (Web Accessibility Directive and local country laws based on it), Australia (Disability Inclusion Act), Israel (Standard 5568), Canada (Jodhan decision). These laws are usually based on WCAG 2.0 or 2.1 and can include or not private companies into it.

Accessibility directive in the EU extends WCAG requirements by asking web service owners to write an accessibility statement that explains which WCAG requirements are not improved and describing a feedback channel for users to write about accessibility issues. The user should receive an answer within 14 days and the web service should be ready to provide a user with an alternative accessible version of the content. The European Accessibility Act is quite broad and covers many products and services, including ATMs, ticketing, check-in machines, services related to air, bus, rail, and waterborne passenger transport, banking services[4][5]

The WCAG guidelines are located on the website of W3C, but for many users, it might be overwhelming to start with the official documentation. There is a shorter version "WCAG checklist" by WebAIM, which condenses the official WCAG 2.1 specification making it easier to implement and verify web pages

Testing and reporting

Manual testing and screen readers

Manual testing can be done by using a keyboard and trying the website with a screen reader, checking that page elements like links and buttons indicate their purpose and state. There are some instructions that can help with the basic testing:

Default browser web page components like buttons, inputs, labels, etc. should be accessible and work quite well with screen readers. That is why it is wise to use standard HTML tags and components as much as possible. In the case of custom elements (e.g. button that is done with a div tag), it should be taken into account WAI ARI practices that are used by browser creators (and other software that should work with assistive technologies). One of the ways to do it is to make sure that these new custom components use special HTML ARIA tags, which screen readers can understand, and mark properly r between relations components. WAI-ARIA practices also include information about component interaction with keyboard key presses. The more detailed information by component types can be found in the WAI-ARIA manual


A screen reader is a technology that helps people with difficulties to access and work with digital content. It includes not only websites but also applications, audio, and video content, PDF files, and other types of content. The main users of screen readers are people with limited vision and, in such case, the screen reader reads out loud what is on the screen. The users can adapt them to their needs, for example, you can decrease the speed of speech, or change the language. Screen readers allow also to navigate through websites and applications via the speech output. When trying to explore whether a webpage is accessible or not - 2 main questions should be asked: can a user navigate the page with a keyboard or screen-reader and are all the page elements properly marked up for screen readers. To answer the second question, it is possible to use automated testing tools. But to answer first - tools some should use manual testing with a screen reader. Listening to your web content rather than looking at it can be an interesting experience and can show drawbacks of web page component workflow. There are quite many mistakes that would have been hard to catch visually. Screen readers are very useful for checking the image alternative text quality. Screen readers can also help to identify problems with elements' order, table markup, form elements, and many other aspects.[6][7][8]

List of screen readers

Automated testing

Many companies are using automated Chrome Dev Tools Audits (built-in Chrome) as a measure of success - it shows an easy to understand percentage of passed accessibility tests. While this tool can be useful, the automated tests cover just part (around 30%) of the all possible accessibility issues and can not be used to measure success.

Browser extensions


The biggest and one of the most popular tools for automated web accessibility testing, because it is used as a basement for Google Chrome Dev Tools accessibility testing and e.g. addons for Storybook. It supports WCAG 2.1 and analyzes part of its issues (some 2.0 issues + 2 of 17 issues for 2.1).

AxE can be used directly in Google Chrome DevTools, as a separate extension for Google Chrome, as part of Microsoft Accessibility Insights tool, or as the terminal application for testing.


Accessibility Insights for Web Accessibility

Insights for Web is an extension for Chrome and the new Microsoft Edge that helps developers find and fix accessibility issues in web apps and sites. The tool supports two primary scenarios: FastPass is a lightweight, two-step process that helps developers identify common, high-impact accessibility issues in less than five minutes. The assessment allows anyone with HTML skills to verify that a web app or web site is compliant with Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 Level AA


IBM Equal Access Accessibility Checker

The IBM Equal Access Accessibility Checker is an open-source tool for web developers and auditors that utilizes IBM's accessibility rule engine, which detects accessibility issues for web pages and web applications. The extension integrates into the browser development tools, providing an integrated checking experience, helping users quickly identify the source of accessibility issues, and try to fix them.


Wave Accessibility tool WAVE

WAVE is a suite of evaluation tools that helps authors make their web content more accessible to individuals with disabilities. WAVE can identify many accessibilities and Web Content Accessibility Guideline (WCAG) errors, but also facilitates human evaluation of web content. You can use the online WAVE tool by entering a web page address (URL) in the field above. WAVE Firefox and Chrome extensions are available for testing accessibility directly within your web browser - handy for checking password-protected, locally stored, or highly dynamic pages.


Chrome Lens

The ChromeLens extension allows to simulate an experience of a blind or colorblind person and contains trackers to visually show the path of a tab/shift-tab navigation flow with the keyboard.


Software testing


Pa11y is a set of free and open-source tools that aim to help designers and developers make accessible websites. They offer a range of utilities, including a dashboard interface, web service, and a desktop application. Behind the scenes, Pa11y CI uses HTML CodeSniffer in Headless Chrome to evaluate web pages based on the WCAG 2.1



Axe is used in Chrome Dev Tools for usability testing, but by itself, it can be quite raw for use in automated testing. There are axe-core, which allows creating scripts for testing and axe-cli for execution in a terminal.



jest-axe is an npm package that wraps axe-core for use in Jest tests. It takes HTML input and runs axe tests against it alongside other Jest tests, outputting any failures to the console and failing a build in the same way as a standard test.


Paypal AATT

AATT includes HTML CodeSniffer, Axe, and Chrome developer tool with Express and PhantomJS, which runs on Node.


Eslint for JSX

A11Y Pairing this plugin with an editor lint plugin, you can bake accessibility standards into your application in real-time.



webhint is a customizable linting tool that helps you improve your site's accessibility, speed, cross-browser compatibility, and more by checking your code for best practices and common errors. Can be installed as VS Code plugin as well and as CLI


Accessibility test checklist

Each of the projects should be checked for accessibility separately. Any changes to design and structure can bring new challenges and accessibility should be rechecked.

Accessibility should be checked on 3 levels

  1. Design (contrasts, colors, alignments, language, UI logic)
  2. Technical (taking into account assistive technologies)
  3. Usability (testing with assistive technology, with real users)

General principles

  • Hiding all visual elements that are selectable by a screen reader, but do not bring any information (textual description) with it
  • Following HTML5 semantics, as it can be used by screen readers (headings, headers, and footer, navigation, etc.)
  • If not possible to change texts that do not bring with them any useful information ("Click here"). then add more detailed information in nearby interactive elements that can have such description, e.g. checkboxes, radio buttons, and fields with a label
  • Control focus with Javascript when needed (Modals, Popup menu)
  • Let users skip navigation and groups of items (checkboxes, radio buttons)
  • Make sure that table tags have description and names of columns


  • Headings H1-H6 (preferably one H1 per page)
  • Semantic landmark tags (Header, Footer, Navigation, Aside, etc.)
  • Labels for checkboxes, radio buttons, and inputs
  • Logical connections between elements and their textual descriptions
  • Readability of links (avoid just “Read more” or overcome it with ARIA labels with additional information)
  • Skipping non-informative elements of design (design images, * asterisks as a marker for a required field, etc.
  • Describing pictures well with informative text when needed
  • Descriptions for infographics Special screen-reader links that suggest you skip navigation and go directly to content
  • Hiding icons from the accessibility tree, if they do not bring any textual information
  • Avoid usage of carousels Web components as elements outer DOM elements are not connected with Shadow DOM
  • Using arrows for moving in groups of checkboxes and radio buttons


The official W3C organization tool that can help to generate a report according to the Website Accessibility Conformance Evaluation Methodology (WCAG-EM). It does not perform any accessibility checks, but has an interactive form with links to WCAG and can build a structured report